Friday, July 17, 2020
Lavender Essential Oil Benefits, Side Effects, Dosage, and Interactions Holistic Health Print The Health Benefits of Lavender Essential Oil This soothing oil can calm anxiety and improve sleep By Cathy Wong Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Caitilin Kelly, MD on November 22, 2019 Caitilin Kelly, MD, is a clinical physician at Indiana University Health Bloomington Hospital and is board-certified in internal medicine. Learn about our Medical Review Board Caitilin Kelly, MD Updated on February 03, 2020 More in Self-Improvement Holistic Health Happiness Meditation Stress Management Spirituality Inspiration Brain Health Technology Relationships View All Lavender essential oil is one of the most popular and versatile essential oils used in aromatherapy. Distilled from the plant Lavandula angustifolia, the oil promotes relaxation and believed to treat anxiety, fungal infections, allergies, depression, insomnia, eczema, nausea, and menstrual cramps. In essential oil practices, lavender is a multipurpose oil. It is purported to have anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antidepressant, antiseptic, antibacterial and antimicrobial properties, as well as antispasmodic, analgesic, detoxifying, hypotensive, and sedative effects.?? Verywell / Gary Ferster Health Benefits Lavender essential oil and its properties have been widely studied. Heres a look at the research. Anxiety While theres currently a lack of large-scale clinical trials testing lavenders effects on people with anxiety, a number of studies show that the oil may offer some anti-anxiety benefits. Several studies have tested lavenders anxiety-reducing effects in specific populations. For example, a study published in Physiology Behavior in 2005 focused on 200 people awaiting dental treatment and found that breathing in the scent of lavender both lessened anxiety and improved mood.?? In addition, a pilot study published in Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice in 2012 indicates that lavender-essential-oil-based aromatherapy may help soothe anxiety in high-risk postpartum women. In an experiment involving 28 women who had given birth in the previous 18 months, researchers found that four weeks of twice-weekly, 15-minute-long aromatherapy sessions helped alleviate depression in addition to lowering anxiety levels.?? Theres also some evidence that ingesting lavender oil may help relieve anxiety. In a report published in Phytomedicine in 2012, for instance, scientists analyzed 15 previously published clinical trials and concluded that dietary supplements containing lavender oil may have some therapeutic effects on patients struggling with anxiety and/or stress.?? A more recent review of the literature found 5 studies (2010, 2010, 2014, 2015 and 2016) showed benefits ins participants with moderate to severe anxiety. Insomnia Several studies have shown lavender essential oil may help promote sleep and fight insomnia. A 2015 study published in the Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine found a combination of sleep hygiene techniques and lavender essential oil therapy helped college students get a better nights sleep than sleep hygiene alone. The study of 79 students with self-reported sleep problems also found inhaling lavender at bedtime improved daytime energy and vibrancy.?? A 2018 study published in Holistic Nursing Practice confirms lavenders effect on sleep. In this study of 30 residents of a nursing home, lavender aromatherapy was found to improve sleep onset, quality, and duration in an elderly population.?? Possible Side Effects Lavender essential oil may cause skin irritation or an allergic reaction in some individuals. If you experience nausea, vomiting, or a headache after using lavender, discontinue use immediately. Because consuming lavender essential oil can have toxic effects, this remedy should not be ingested unless under the supervision of a medical professional. Dosage and Preparation There is no recommended daily allowance for lavender essential oil. According to the principles of aromatherapy, breathing in the scent of lavender essential oil or applying lavender essential oil to the skin transmits messages to the limbic system, a brain region known to influence the nervous system and help regulate emotion. One popular approach involves combining lavender oil with a carrier oil (such as jojoba or sweet almond). Once blended with a carrier oil, lavender essential oil can be massaged into your skin or added to your bath. You can also sprinkle a few drops of lavender essential oil onto a cloth or tissue and inhale its aroma, or add the oil to an aromatherapy diffuser or vaporizer. What to Look For Essential oils are not regulated by the FDA and do not have to meet any purity standards. When purchasing essential oils, look for a supplier who either distills their own material or deals directly with reputable distillers, and uses gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to analyze the quality of the product. When buying pure lavender essential oil, check the label for its Latin name, Lavandula angustifolia. No other oils or ingredients should be listed. If you see another oil, such as fractionated coconut oil, jojoba oil, or sweet almond oil, the lavender is diluted and should not be used in a diffuser. Essential oils should be packaged in a dark amber or cobalt bottle and stored out of sunlight. Other Questions Can lavender essential oil treat allergies? Many essential oil proponents recommend using a combination of lavender, lemon, and peppermint oil to relieve allergy symptoms, and claim that lavender is a natural antihistamine. A 1999 study printed in the J Pharm Pharmaceuticals did find that lavender oil inhibits immediate type allergic reactions in mice and rats. Will adding lavender oil to my mascara make my lashes grow faster? Adding lavender oil to mascara is purported to help lashes grow thicker and faster. The theory behind this is that tiny mites live on and feast on eyelashes inhibiting growth, and using lavender to kill the mites will allow lashes to grow faster. There is no scientific evidence to support this claim. Is lavender essential oil a cure for baldness? A few studies over the years have suggested that lavender oil may reverse hair loss. A 2016 study on mice showed that a diluted topically applied lavender essential oil did lead to dramatic hair growth. An earlier study (1998) looked at people with alopecia areata showed improvement in hair growth with a topically applied combination of lavender, thyme, rosemary and cedarwood. A Word From Verywell While lavender may help soothe mild anxiety, it should not be used in place of professional mental health treatment for any type of anxiety disorder. If youre experiencing symptoms of anxiety such as constant worrying, fatigue, insomnia, and rapid heartbeat, make sure to consult your primary care provider rather than self-treating your anxiety with lavender.
Posted by e at 1:59 AM
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Motivational Interviewing The process of motivational interviewing is essentially about creating intrinsic motivation to change within the client (Moyers, 1998). The choice to change must originate with the client and the process for helping this occur begins with motivational interviewing. There are two phases within motivational interviewing, the first focuses on increasing the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation to change and the second phase is negotiating a plan and consolidating commitment. It is important to understand the traps that can be encountered within this process, such as the question/answer trap. In this trap the client is led by the counselor with little chance to have free speech to explain themselves because the counselor is just focused on the next question instead of focusing on where the client is leading them. This trap is very similar to the expert trap in the fact that the client is left to believe they cannot find answers for themselves; they instead must listen to the expert who is giving t hem the answers. This is most definitely not the way to motivate a client to make changes for themselves. Other traps include premature focus, denial, labeling, and blaming; all of which can prevent the client from opening up in the treatment process. Motivational interviewing includes opening strategies to allow the process of eliciting readiness, providing feedback or information to the patient, and then eliciting the patient s interpretation of the information to flowShow MoreRelatedNutrition Counseling : The Process Of Guiding A Client Toward A Healthy Nutrition Lifestyle1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNutrition counselling can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the process of guiding a client toward a healthy nutrition lifestyle by meeting normal nutritional needs and solving problems that are barriers to changeÃ¢â¬ . To change food habits effectively, nutrition counsellors work with clients to alter behaviours influenced by different social, ethnic, emotional and biological factors. It was once thought that by simply handing out diets and facts to clients that nutrition professionals could change food behaviours. TheRead MoreComparison of the Transtheratical, Motivational Interviewing and Solution Focused Interviewing Models1089 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSolution-Focused Interviewing, The Transtheoretical Model, and Motivational Interviewing are three approaches used by practitioners to assist and guide people in changing their behavior. Each approach has its own format and process and this paper will compare and contrast some similarities and differences between these three approaches. This will be done by looking at five client scenarios and comparing and contrasting them with the approaches. The five client scenarios are; the client who wantsRead MoreBenefits Of Self Efficacy High While Recovery From An Addiction1479 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmore susceptible to relapse. They will not have the motivation to do those things that they need to do in order to maintain their sobriety. It may only take a few bumps on the recovery path to knock them completely off course and they will use this as justification to return to alcohol or drug abuse. This is why it is important that people keep their self-efficacy high while recover y from an addiction. Commitment to abstinence, a motivational construct, is a strong predictor of reductions in drugRead MorePsychology : Using Motivational Interviewing Essay907 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesChapter 29: Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Patient Behavior Change Section I: Introduction to Human Behavior Change -Patients with periodontal disease often have to change their behaviors to promote periodontal health. -This behavior change makes chronic periodontitis largely preventable. -Patients can often be resistant to the behavioral changes needed in many ways. -Dental hygienists typically approach patient education in a persuasive, direct manner offering facts about oralRead MoreEssay on My Personal Perspective of Coaching1659 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshave an innate capacity to grow and develop a focus on mutually agreed upon goals, and an understanding that the relationship is relatively equal and collaborative as stated by the author (2009). Some techniques that are in seen during a coaching process include but are not limited to the following list as provided by the author: active listening, the use of powerful questions which are based on broad and open-ended to raise awareness of the client to take stock of their values and resources, cognitiveRead MoreMotivational Interviewing Model As Intervention Method For Eating Disorders Essay2911 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesIntroduction Motivational Interviewing model is particularly a client-focused and directive therapeutic model that helps prepare clients toward readiness for change by exploring and resolving factors that causes conflicting feelings toward change. I will be discussing Motivational Interviewing model as intervention method for eating disorders. This paper discusses Motivational Interviewing model as intervention model for correcting eating disorder behavior. I will adopt the model to develop interventionRead MoreNutrition And Motivational Interviewing : The Health And Healing1273 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNutrition and Motivational Interviewing in Adolescence Health and Healing 1 Georgian College Harrison Klein 200321230 Although we all know what nutrition is, are we nutritious? Do we have the education and knowledge to be nutritious? A lot of people do not, and that is why this topic is relevant to society, especially adolescence. No matter what, good nutrition is essential for everyone, but it is especially important for growing teenagers. Proper nutritionRead MoreMotivational Interviewing An Evidence Based Psychotherapeutic Method That Was Developed By Dr. William R. Miller1827 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAccording to Miller and Rose (2009), Motivational Interviewing is an evidence-based psychotherapeutic method that was developed by Dr. William R. Miller following unexplained outcomes that emphasized the impact of interpersonal processes on behavior change after Miller trained counselors on techniques of behavioral self-control and accurate empathy. The clinical method has been defined by Lewis Dana and Belvins (2015) and Miller and Rollnick (2002) as goal-directive, client-centered counseling methodR ead MoreEffective Communication Strategies For Patients With Chronic Conditions1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The role of the primary care team is critical, but limited, in the patient engagement process. The main goal of the primary care team is to support the patient through the use of a tailored wellness plan based on the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, values, and preferences. Here are a few effective communication strategies and discussion aids to initiate the patient engagement conversation. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered technique that is associated with positive behavioral outcomesRead MoreNVQ Unit 91 Enable Individuals with Be2167 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere are a massive variety of different approaches and methods when attempting to change an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. We will target only a specific few that are more prevalent within todayÃ¢â¬â¢s industry. The methods and approaches will include motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioural therapy, solution-focused therapy and adult learning methods these will be the approaches and methods that I will expand upon throughout the chapter. CBT is a form of talking therapy that combines cognitive therapy
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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Poverty within humanity has been a pressing social issue for centuries. Historically, wars have been waged and governmental regimes toppled because of the clash between wealthy aristocracy and the poor working class. One of the most notable of this type of dispute is the French Revolution. The French Revolution sparked country across Europe and the world, giving rise to the formation of new political opinion of the poor. Famous authors and politicians during the time, like Thomas Paine and Edmund Burke, sparked an emergence of differing opinions from those commonly held prior to the revolution on the topics of human natureÃ¢â¬â¢s impact on poverty and original sin. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s day and age, this difference of opinion is still prevalent withinÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The image Burke and More created of the poor was highly negative with no room for improvement in their condition, and condemned the impoverished to their social situation. Meanwhile, other political activists during this time disputed More and BurkeÃ¢â¬â¢s claims on poverty. Thomas Paine and Mary Wollstonecraft supported the revolution and envisioned human nature in a more positive light. Instead of original sin and condemnation, they saw a perfectibility within humanity. The original sin doctrine was just a way to obtain power and scare people into submission. Like Wollstonecraft states, Ã¢â¬Å". . . the wild traditions on original sin . . . on which priests have erected their tremendous structures of imposition, to persuade us, that we are naturally inclined to evilÃ¢â¬ (81). By enforcing and stressing original sin upon the masses, people have been tricked to believe that human nature is inherently bad. Therefore, poverty is not caused by sin, but instead a poor governmental system. The risk that these political activists took can most clearly be seen through the happenings following the publication of Thomas PaineÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights of Man. Acro ss Britain effigies were burned in his honor because people believed that his ideas were inciting rebellion (69). Paine created radical plans on how to help the impoverished through progressive taxation and work towards the prevention of poverty through giving every personShow MoreRelatedPoverty Of Poverty And Poverty1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageseach day as a result of poverty (Ã¢â¬Å"Child Mortality Rate DropsÃ¢â¬ ). On their website, The World Bank calculated that the amount of people living in extreme poverty was likely to fall below ten percent in 2015. Even though the poverty rate has decreased, there are still many people living in extreme poverty. One billion children in the world live in poverty and organizations like Compassion International are helping give them a new life (Ã¢â¬Å"Poverty Facts and StatsÃ¢â¬ ). What is poverty? There are two specificRead MoreThe Poverty Of Poverty And Poverty1394 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesare so many Americans living in poverty today, and the number of those living in poverty will probably only go up from here. What s even more disheartening is that a lot of the poverty stricken families include young children. America is considered one of the richest nations in the world, and that we are so much better off than other countries. While it may be true, I beg to ask the question of why are so many of our fellow brothers and sisters living in poverty? For those of us who are fortunateRead MorePoverty And Poverty : Poverty1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Poverty for centuries has been a very severe issue that has troubled many nations while impeding economic developments and progress. Poverty stricken countries are majorly concentrated in the continents of Africa and Asia. Continents like the Americas and Europe have globally been recognized as been weal thier yet still many parts of these ostensible countries face massive cases of poverty. Most at times, countries with high populations owing to high birth rates face the most casesRead MorePoverty : Poverty And Poverty3135 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesPoverty Research Paper Noah Morrow Mrs.Zimmerly English 10 April/4/2015 The rich cause poverty because of the inequality and unfairness they bring. The country is put to blame for the governments and nations decisions. The people themselves can also be put at fault for poverty because of population but, some can not help it. This affects the poverty threshold, the people, and the number of people in poverty. Poverty can be solved with the help of organizations, the government or the president,Read MorePoverty And Poverty : Poverty1950 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAlthough many see poverty as a choice, made by those who are lazy and prefer to do nothing but expect to reap the same benefits of people who work hard every day to provide for their families. In some cases this may be true but, poverty will wreak havoc on any and all of those who have the misfortune of crossing paths with it. Poverty is alive and well throughout the world, and it has an unyielding pulse here in the United States. It has been discovered that The poorest families in America areRead MorePoverty Of Poverty And Poverty861 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesI. Background, Statistics, Introduction Poverty traps are economic anomalies that continually reinforce poverty within a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s, or multiple countriesÃ¢â¬â¢, economies. There are many different types of poverty traps such as savings traps, Ã¢â¬Å"big pushÃ¢â¬ models, nutritional traps, behavioral traps, geographic traps, etc. that all affect an economy in different ways. Not only can poverty be enforced through these traps, but also through the way an economy is run or the moralities of the government. AccordingRead MorePoverty Between Poverty And Poverty Essay2121 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesPoverty in America is severe. One third of our population lives under the poverty line. The poverty line being a family of three or more surviving on $36,000 or less. This transfers to 20.5 million people. Seven million of these people being women with children. 6.7% of our population has an income less than 9,000 for a family of three. These numbers are astounding and they are only on the rise. This means that more families are going without food. This means more children are starving and gettingRead MorePoverty, Situational Poverty And Chronic Poverty1515 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPoverty varies in different social contexts through different cultures, generations, and history. People are born and raised in different parts of the world and by different people, meaning we all come from various cultures and most likely we all have different perspectives and we define poverty differently. By talking to people from the local community we came across that there are two major types of poverty, situational poverty and chronic poverty. Situational poverty is when one becomes poor becauseRead MoreThe Poverty Cycle Of Poverty1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof poverty? The Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) collects information on the social and economic status of families and their offspring every year. The National Center for Children in Poverty used a PSID study that found Ã¢â¬Å"that individuals who grow up in poor families are much more likely to be poor in early adulthood. Moreover, the chances of being poor in early adulthood increase sharply as the time spent living in poverty during childhood increasesÃ¢â¬ (Wagmiller and Adelman). The poverty cycleRead MorePoverty Is A Problem Of Poverty1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPoverty does not have one clear definition. It is a complicated, multi-faceted concept. It is a common social issue that has troubled nations for thousands of years. Poverty is the condition of having an insufficient amount of resources or income. Poverty has haunted the social life of Brazil for a number of years. With a booming economy, Brazil has managed to skip over poverty, for now. However, how long can they hold this issue off? The problem does not lie in their efforts but the way they have
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string(70) " It thus led Plato into believing that there was no infallible truth\." Picking on materialism in Feuerbach, Marx claims sensuousness and actuality as the main objects of contemplation. This implicitly implies that humanity is interested on selfish issues which result to individual pleasure. Objectivity is also viewed in regards to whether humanity can remain objective. We will write a custom essay sample on Broad Political Theory Questions or any similar topic only for you Order Now MarxÃ¢â¬Ës position is of critical importance though the stand on whether it has changed the world remains debatable. LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy has played a big part in the present day events. A look at the American constitution serves as a pointer to this view. Even the unites nations charter on human rights seems to have made reference to LockesÃ¢â¬â¢ work especially on property rights. Locke seems too be an advocate of a free society in which individuals get to benefit equitably. Though this has not been achieved, the society has made remarkable improvements towards attaining certain universal goals like the millennium development goals. The pursuit of objectivity as implied by Marx is thus a unifying feature of the two philosophers. Plato only interpreted the world while attempting to achieve his goal of indicating or underscoring the importance of the republic. Whereas, the pursuit if justice is of noble consideration, it remains to be seen whether, it has been achieved or whether it will ever be achieved. The effect that the Plato philosophy has had remains persistent and unbroken. The academy the philosopher opened in Athens remains a pillar of the works undertaken by the scholar. The influences of Plato are known to have played a significant role in shaping various religious developments over a long period of time. If justice is to be attained, then objectivity is a prerequisite, a fact observed by Marx. 2. Machiavelli used hypocrisy to lay siege on the Christian faith. The philosopher was always against morality apart from the support he gave to those intending to stand on its way. Christianity is based on what its faith call good morals. As Machiavelli puts it, morality is not an issue if it cannot be justified. Machiavelli believed that itÃ¢â¬â¢s the Ã¢â¬Ëend that justifies the meansÃ¢â¬â¢. Machiavelli saw every piece of religion as an act of propaganda. Machiavelli thought that the Christian faith would collapse before the world itself came to an end. Through social relativism, Machiavelli claimed the absence of the Christian god. In this construction, it was claimed that since God never existed to offer universal morals, then there were no morals top be followed. Socrates is believed to have carried a study on what constituted holiness. This in itself presented an act of impiety. While facing a case in Xenophon, Socrates twice objected to using a divine sign ass he prepared his defense. Socrates in another case chose to save Euthyphro instead of saving himself. In short, the prime focus rests on the accusation against Socrates as introducing new gods in the town. The two philosophers appeared to have veered off societal godly underpinnings. The fact that Socrates is accused of bringing gods to town serves as a pointer to the fact that there are respected and un-respected gods. MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s rebuttal of the Christian faith also presents the philosopher as a person that objects to well crafted societal religious leanings. It is thus held that these two philosophers played a role in jeopardizing well regarded traditions during their time. 3. Socrates uses the human tendency to corruption to propagate his preferred type of leadership. Socrates points to timocracy, democracy, oligarchy, and tyranny as unacceptable forms of government. Socrates finally submitted that if ruling was to attain the best for society, then it should be left to philosopher leaders. In SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ thinking, the philosophers were the most just and least susceptible to graft. The scholar augmented the position by claiming that the philosophers were in a position to rule in pursuit of the good for the city as opposed to for the self. In a legitimate society, there is no room for societal divisions; all citizens should enjoy same level benefits. Thomas HobbesÃ¢â¬â¢ views on the best possible form or structure of government were premised on a society led by a powerful leviathan. Based on social contract theories, the focus remains on the creation of a strong centre of administration. This type of government as proposed by Hobbes will guarantee the security and welfare of the people. Any abuses that may arise as a result of the leadership by the leviathan must be accepted. This is premised on the fact that the people by setting up the leviathan, agreed to cede their natural power. Socrates manages to drive to his peers that a government is a role played best by people disconnected with self interest. On the other hand, one gets the impression that Hobbes was driving home the need to have a powerful leadership that was not answerable to people. In the SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ society individuals would have a say, while in the Hobbesian society, individuals would not hold a say on public issues. 4. Thomas Hobbes believed that human desires, selfish interests, pleasures and pains of a moment played a key role in decision making. These factors among others imply tat the human nature cannot be relied upon in passing judgment on a number of issues as distortions may occur. Hobbes focal point in relation to human nature remains premised on the concept of motivation. Hobbes saw man as a self centered and rationally calculating individual. It is thus highly unlikely that people will pursue common good. Individuals due to their selfish stances are thus destined top pursue personal goals even if this means putting the goals of the rest at stake. In Hobbes thinking, common good is thus an illusion. In reference to Plato, the pursuit of happiness had to lie with the observation of virtues and commonly accepted doctrines. Plato held the Sophistic view concerning knowledge which saw it as subjective and relative. This, in reference to Plato, undermined morality. It thus led Plato into believing that there was no infallible truth. You read "Broad Political Theory Questions" in category "Papers" Plato failed to see the point why a person who could not understand the self and rules of morality would be bound to look beyond the principle of self actualization. In short, if morality does not take care of individual interests, then individuals are not bound to observe its dictates. Plato saw manÃ¢â¬â¢s nature as rational and expected society to be organized in tandem with requirements of civility on rational principles. As a rational being, a human being knows or is in a position to evaluate every case scenario and pursues what best serves the interests desired by the individual in question. 5. On the basis of Aristotle, happiness is not primarily premised upon an exercise of virtue but rather on the administering of an ideal state. In a nut shell, the interests of all are closely knit together such that the interests of all resemble the interests of a single individual in the republic. In precise terms, all individual acts are for the common good. This altruistic stance remains questionable as it is difficult in practice top find such states. Niccolo Machiavelli is famous for the advice given to the monarch with a view to power monopolization. Machiavelli advocated for policies that would discourage mass activism in political affairs. Machiavelli believed the citizenry was well exercising its energies in private practice in the process leaving out political and state activities. In his book, the Prince, Machiavelli urged the monarch to use violence and force to achieve the government goals. Machiavelli held the view that political aims could not be led by a single set of religious or moral ideas. From the above two positions, it emerges that there are interests to be protected by any state or society. The societal or state claims are wide varied as the ruled and the rulers may conflict on interests. Even if there were no conflicts, still issues regarding approach would arise. This puts the leaders, the few, against the ruled, the many. On this basis, Machiavelli sought to have the ruler have enormous responsibility in making decisions as the many could spoil the aspirations of a republic. However, Aristotle envisaged a scenario; whereby the interests are melted down to reflect a single position, a position difficult to reach. Hence this implied that the leaders had to take a position that they thought would serve societal interests. 6. Aristotle viewed natural justice as a special species of political justice. Inn this view, Aristotle believed that a society had to enlist distributive and corrective measures to ensure societal cohesion. Aristotle claimed further, that the best regime may not after all the one that observes the rule of law in its operations. On the basis of Aristotle every civilized society had a set of rules and regulations it used to govern behaviour. In AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s views, civilized society emerged as a result of the emerging need to develop laws to regulate certain aspects of life within different societies. Thomas Hobbes uses the term leviathan to capture the collective will of people. These people come together to form a government that retains the sovereign authority. To Thomas Hobbes, collective will is the major force behind the formation of a civilized society. The people realized that they had collective desire, to achieve the different desires; they saw it worthy to establish an authority to take care of their needs. The biggest need being the provision of security so that each individual gets to go about their business without undue disturbance. The differences appear minute in this case as AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s view of a civilized society was based on the need for cohesiveness in society. On the other hand, the need for civility in reference to Thomas Hobbes rested on the drive to protect collective will. The act of protecting collective will is almost in line with regulating societal aspects so as to exact compliance. However, this should not be misconstrued to mean that the two mean the same thing as only similarities exist. 7. Aristotle believed that family existed just for the sake of political life. Further to this, Aristotle supposedly viewed politics as practiced for friendship purposes. Contrary to this position, Aristotle discussed family relations as types of friendships which are used as designs of political rule. He thus obscures the ordering of the relationships that he advocates in politics. The practice of politics must observe friendly relations just as a family does. In the terms of Aristotle, politics is thus useful in strengthening family ties. The family integrates people into a family and thus aids the formation or the commencement of political life. John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s 2nd treatise of government aimed to show that there was a legitimate foundation between people and power. This was captured by the social contract theory. Locke believed that a political society is not a form of family. In this regard, Locke was trying to discredit the patriarchal kingship. Locke went further to claim that a magistrateÃ¢â¬â¢s position on a case could not be compared o a fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s case. Locke saw two distinct societies in this scenario. Locke further claimed that the creation of the two societies was different and meant to achieve different goals. In LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s observation, the political societyÃ¢â¬â¢s end is to possess property unlike a familial one that aims at raising children. The major separation point between the two scholars is premised on the aims of the two societies and how they are formed. Whereas Aristotle assumed that the two societies pursue one aim, Locke clearly shows that the aims are distinct in the two societies. The reasons for formation are equally found to be different as opposed to the views posited by Aristotle. 8. LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s position on money is viewed in relation to the right to ownership of property. In LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, each individual had the right to acquire property through hard work. However, Locke only saw it necessary that an individual amasses what they only need and ensure that in that pursuit, their labor does not become destructive. In precise terms, what Locke stood for was acquisitions of needs. He was opposed to excessive accumulation of wealth which defines the current society. Locke appeared to assume that all things were naturally available to everybody and thus objected to the systems of accumulation. An accumulation beyond what one could use at the time amounted to acquiring an unfair share. Aristotle saw the necessity of money in human life. However, he made a number of proposals regarding currency. Aristotle saw money as a common measure of al things available for consumption. In a nut shell, Aristotle saw money as the surest way of equalizing all consumables. In AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s terms, money was necessary to ensure a just and fair exchange system. The philosopher thus argued that money came up in a bid to ease the problem of exchange. In AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s terms good money had to be durable, portable, divisible, and intrinsically valuable. On the basis of the above presentation, it is crystal clear that Locke saw money as a potential for unfair practices. It could only be fair if each individual would acquire a rightful amount so that everybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s interests are taken care of. In reference to Aristotle, money was good only if it could be used for constructive purposes. Aristotle did not envisage money to be used in a commercialized manner. This is because of what Aristotle perceived as the natureÃ¢â¬â¢s limited nature. How to cite Broad Political Theory Questions, Papers
Posted by e at 8:06 AM
Saturday, April 25, 2020
An analysis of the concept of revenge in American short stories. This paper discusses the concept of revenge in American literature and examines eight short stories such as The Open Boat and To Build a Fire. The author examines the physical and psychological aspects of revenge. Revenge can be meted out in many ways. It can be impersonal, like the justice system hanging a man, shaving a womans head, or by nature. It can be psychological, like the form of verbal jousting that takes place between lovers or relatives, or even simply seeing an individual whose plight mirrors ones own. Throughout the 20th century there has been a gradual, rather halting decent inward into the rendering of revenge in literature as a more psychological, self-inflicted state. Revenge takes place in the characters imaginations, like the connections Francis draws between himself and the German prisoner-maid, and the wifes fantasy, expressed as a warning, in Steinbecks Chrysanthemums. We will write a custom essay sample on What is Revenge? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page
Posted by e at 11:26 AM
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Lugar del matrimonio gay para beneficios migratorios En Estados Unidos los matrimonios gays tienen los mismos beneficiosÃ migratorios que los heterosexuales, tanto para el caso de tarjetas de residencia como de visas no inmigrantes. Beneficios migratorios de matrimonios gays Ciudadanos y residentes permanentes pueden solicitar la green card para sus cÃ ³nyuge, esto aplica tanto a los matrimonios entre una mujer y un varÃ ³n como a los celebrados entre dos personas del mismo sexo. Adems, los beneficios migratorios por matrimonio tambiÃ ©n aplican en casos de visas no inmigrantes como laÃ F de estudiante. la H-1B,Ã de trabajo, las de inversiÃ ³nÃ oÃ las J-1 de intercambio.Ã En este tipo de visas los cÃ ³nyuges y los hijos solteros menores de 21 aÃ ±os pueden obtener lo que se conoce com visas derivadas. Pero el matrimonio tiene queÃ ser legal. Ã ¿DÃ ³nde se puede celebrar? Lo importante es que el matrimonio estÃ © vlidamente reconocido en el lugar en el que se celebra. En este artÃ culo se trata primero de la situaciÃ ³n actual en Estados Unidos y tambiÃ ©n de cÃ ³mo es la legislaciÃ ³n en otros paÃ ses ya que se admite el celebrado en el extranjero, si es legal segÃ ºn tales leyes. Las leyes migratorias no piden que al menos uno de os novios tenga que residir en el lugar de celebraciÃ ³n del matrimonio. SÃ ³lo hablan de que sea reconocido legalmente en el lugar de celebraciÃ ³n. Hay que destacar que se habla en todo momento de matrimonio, no de parejas o de uniones de hecho. Matrimonio homosexual en Estados Unidos Una decisiÃ ³n de la Corte Suprema de los Estados Unidos del 26 de mayo de 2015 ha declarado inconstitucional las leyes de los estados que prohibÃ an el matrimonio entre dos hombres o dos mujeres.Ã Como consecuencia de esta sentencia, en todos los estados de los Estados Unidos es legal el matrimonio gay. Las reglas sobre quÃ © se necesita las determinan cada estado e, incluso, en casos, los condados o las municipalidades.Ã Asimismo, es legal en todos los territorios de Estados Unidos: Puerto Rico, Guam, Samoa y las Islas VÃ rgenes americanas. Y, por supuesto, en Washington D.C. (la capital del paÃ s no es un estado. Es un distrito). Lo que importa es que este tipo de matrimonio pasa a poder celebrarse vlidamente en todo el territorio nacional y que el requisito de InmigraciÃ ³n para que un matrimonio tenga consecuencias migratorias es precisamente ese: que sea vlido y no fraudulento (celebrado Ã ºnicamente con el propÃ ³sito de obtener los papeles). Otros paÃ ses en los que es vlido el matrimonio gay Las autoridades de inmigraciÃ ³n de Estados Unidos reconocen para inmigraciÃ ³n todos los matrimonios celebrados en el extranjero que son vlidos de acuerdo a sus leyes. Por lo tanto, se puede pedir una tarjeta de residencia Ã o una visa derivada para el marido o la esposa cuando el matrimonio homosexual se ha celebrado en un lugar donde es legal, aunque sea ilegal en el lugar habitual de residencia. Son legales los matrimonios entre dos personas del mismo sexo en: ArgentinaBÃ ©lgicaBrasilCanadColombiaDinamarcaÃ EspaÃ ±aEstados UnidosFranciaHolandaIrlandaIslandiaLuxemburgoMÃ ©xico en Campeche, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Jalisco, Michoacn, Morelos, Nayarit, Quintana Rooy DFNoruegaNueva ZelandaÃ PortugalReino UnidoÃ SudfricaSueciaUruguay En Finlandia la ley est aprobada y entrar en vigor el 1 de marzo de 2017. En el caso de Israel, no se celebran los matrimonios gays, pero sÃ que se reconoce la legalidad de los celebrados vlidamente en otros paÃ ses. Matrimonio gay e inmigraciÃ ³n de los Estados Unidos Para que el matrimonio produzca la green card las leyes migratorias piden que sea vlido y no fraudulento (celebrado Ã ºnicamente con el propÃ ³sito de obtener los papeles). Las personas interesadas en solicitar al cÃ ³nyuge deben familiarizarse con todo lo que hay que saber sobre el complejo trmite de pedir los papeles por matrimonio, incluido los requisitos de ingresos para poder patrocinar, los tiempos de demora en la tramitaciÃ ³n, cuando no es posible pedir las esposo/a debido a su situaciÃ ³n migratoria o cÃ ³mo las deudas pueden impedirlo.Ã Es tambiÃ ©n importante entender las obligaciones que se contraen cuando se firma el documento que se conoce Ã como affidavit of support o declaraciÃ ³n de sostenientoÃ ya que es posible que dure ms que el propio matrimonio. Asimismo, los extranjeros para los que se solicita la green card deben familiarizarse con las obligaciones y derechos que da la residencia. Una buena forma es tomar este test de respuestas mÃ ºltiples que permite verificar si se conocen los puntos bsicos para disfrutar la residencia y evitar su cancelaciÃ ³n o revocaciÃ ³n. Finalmente, en esta entrevista el abogado Frank Calabrese responde a dudas frecuentes sobre elÃ permiso de residenciaÃ porÃ matrimonio gayÃ y tambiÃ ©n peticiones de visa para cÃ ³nyuges homosexuales. Este es un artÃ culo informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal para ningÃ ºn caso concreto.
Posted by e at 6:12 AM
Sunday, March 1, 2020
JFKÃ¢â¬â¢s Brain and Missing Body Parts of Historical Figures Remember when you were a kid and one of your goofy uncles was always trying to scare you by Ã¢â¬Å"stealing your noseÃ¢â¬ between his thumb and forefinger? While you quickly figured out your nose was safe, the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"until death do us partÃ¢â¬ takes on a whole new meaning for some very famous deceased people whose body parts have been oddly Ã¢â¬Å"relocated.Ã¢â¬ John F. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s Vanishing Brain Since that horrible day in November 1963, controversies and conspiracy theories have swirled around the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Perhaps the most bizarre of these controversies involves things that happened during and after President KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s official autopsy. In 1978, the published findings of the congressional House Select Committee on Assassinations revealed that JFKÃ¢â¬â¢s brain had gone missing. While some doctors at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas testified that they had seen First Lady Jackie Kennedy holding a part of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s brain, what happened to it remains unknown. However, it is documented that JFKÃ¢â¬â¢s brain was removed during the autopsy and placed in a stainless-steel box that was subsequently handed over to the Secret Service. The box remained locked in the White House until 1965, when JFKÃ¢â¬â¢s brother, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, ordered the box to be stored in the National Archives building. However, a National Archives inventory of medical evidence from the JFK autopsy conducted in 1966 showed no record of the box or the brain. Conspiracy theories regarding who stole JFKÃ¢â¬â¢s brain and why soon flew. Released in 1964, the Warren Commission report stated that Kennedy had been struck by two bullets fired from the rear by Lee Harvey Oswald. One bullet reportedly went through his neck, while the other struck the back of his skull, leaving bits of brain, bone, and skin scattered about the presidential limousine. Some conspiracy theorists suggested that the brain was stolen in order to hide proof that Kennedy had been shot from the front, rather than from behind - and by someone other than Oswald. More recently, in his 2014 book, End of Days: The Assassination of John F. Kennedy, author James Swanson suggests that the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s brain had been taken by his younger brother, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, Ã¢â¬Å"perhaps to conceal evidence of the true extent of President Kennedys illnesses, or perhaps to conceal evidence of the number of medications that President Kennedy was taking.Ã¢â¬ Still, others suggest the much less glamorous possibility that the remains of the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s brain simply got lost somewhere in the fog of confusion and bureaucracy that followed the assassination. Since the last batch of declassified official JFK assassination records released on Nov. 9, 2017, shed no light on the mystery, the whereabouts of JFKÃ¢â¬â¢s brain remains unknown today. The Secrets of Einsteins Brain The brains of powerful, intelligent, and talented people like JFK have long been favorite targets of Ã¢â¬Å"collectorsÃ¢â¬ who believe a study of the organs might reveal the secrets of their former ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ success. Sensing that his brain was somehow Ã¢â¬Å"different,Ã¢â¬ super-genius physicist Albert Einstein had occasionally expressed his wishes to have his body donated to science. However, the creator of the groundbreaking theory of relativity never bothered to write down his wishes. After he died in 1955, EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s family directed that he - meaning all of him - be cremated. However, Dr. Thomas Harvey, the pathologist who performed the autopsy, decided to remove AlbertÃ¢â¬â¢s brain before releasing his body to the undertakers. Much to the displeasure of the geniusÃ¢â¬â¢ loved ones, Dr. Harvey stored EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s brain in his home for nearly 30 years, rather unceremoniously, preserved in two plain Mason jars. The rest of EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s body was cremated, with his ashes scattered in secret locations. After Dr. HarveyÃ¢â¬â¢s death in 2010, the remains of EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s brain were transferred to the National Museum of Health and Medicine near Washington, D.C. Since then, 46 thin slices of the brain have been mounted on microscope slides displayed at the MÃ ¼tter Museum in Philadelphia. NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s Man Part After conquering most of Europe, diminutive French military genius and emperor Napoleon Bonaparte died in exile on May 5, 1821. During an autopsy done the next day, NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s heart, stomach, and other Ã¢â¬Å"vital organsÃ¢â¬ were removed from his body. While several people witnessed the procedure, one of them reportedly decided to leave with some souvenirs. In 1916, heirs of Napoleons chaplain, AbbÃ © Ange Vignali, sold a collection of Napoleonic artifacts, including what they claimed to be the emperorÃ¢â¬â¢s penis. Whether actually part of Napoleon or not - or even a penis at all - the manly artifact changed hands several times over the years. Finally, in 1977, the item believed to be NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s penis was sold at auction to leading American urologist John J. Lattimer. While modern forensic tests conducted on the artifact confirm that it is a human penis, whether it was ever really attached to Napoleon remains unknown. John Wilkes Booths Neck Bones or Not? While he might have been an accomplished assassin, John Wilkes Booth was a lousy escape artist. Not only did he break his leg just after murdering President Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865, just 12 days later, he was shot in the neck and killed in a barn in Port Royal, Virginia. During the autopsy, BoothÃ¢â¬â¢s third, fourth, and fifth vertebrae were removed in an attempt to find the bullet. Today, the remains of BoothÃ¢â¬â¢s spine are preserved and often displayed at the National Museum of Health and Medicine in Washington, D.C. According to government assassination reports, BoothÃ¢â¬â¢s body was eventually released to the family and buried in an unmarked grave in a family plot at BaltimoreÃ¢â¬â¢s Green Mount Cemetery in 1869. Since then, however, conspiracy theorists have suggested that it was not Booth who was killed in that Port Royal barn or buried in that Green Mount grave. One popular theory contends Booth escaped justice for 38 years, living until 1903, supposedly committing suicide in Oklahoma. In 1995, BoothÃ¢â¬â¢s descendants filed a court request to have the body buried at Green Mount Cemetery exhumed in hopes that it could be identified as their infamous relative or not. Despite having the support of the Smithsonian Institution, the judge denied the request citing previous water damage to the burial plot, evidence that other family members had been buried there, and publicity from the Ã¢â¬Å"less than convincing escape/cover-up theory.Ã¢â¬ Today, however, the mystery might be solved by comparing DNA from BoothÃ¢â¬â¢s brother Edwin to the autopsy bones in the National Museum of Health and Medicine. However, in 2013, the museum denied a request for a DNA test. In a letter to Maryland Sen. Chris Van Hollen, who had helped craft the request, the museum stated, Ã¢â¬Å"the need to preserve these bones for future generations compels us to decline the destructive test.Ã¢â¬ The Salvaging of Stonewall Jacksons Left Arm As Union bullets zipped around him, Confederate General Thomas Ã¢â¬Å"StonewallÃ¢â¬ Jackson would famously sit Ã¢â¬Å"like a stone wallÃ¢â¬ astride his horse during the Civil War. However, JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s luck or bravery let him down during the 1863 Battle of Chancellorsville, when a bullet accidentally fired by one of his own Confederate riflemen ripped through his left arm. In what was the common practice of early battlefield trauma treatment, surgeons amputated JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s tattered arm. As the arm was about to be unceremoniously thrown onto a pile of similarly amputated limbs, military chaplain Rev. B. Tucker Lacy decided to save it. As Chancellorsville Park ranger Chuck Young tells visitors, Ã¢â¬Å"Remembering that Jackson was the rock star of 1863, everybody knew who Stonewall was, and to have his arm just simply thrown on the scrap pile with the other arms, Rev. Lacy couldnt let that happen.Ã¢â¬ Just eight days after his arm was amputated, Jackson died of pneumonia. Today, while most of JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s body is buried at the Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery in Lexington, Virginia, his left arm is entered in a private cemetery at Ellwood Manor, not far from the field hospital where it was amputated. The Travels of Oliver Cromwells Head Oliver Cromwell, the sternly Puritan Lord Protector of England, whose parliamentary or Ã¢â¬Å"GodlyÃ¢â¬ party tried to ban Christmas in the 1640s, was far from a wild and crazy guy. But after he died in 1658, his head really got around. Starting as a Member of Parliament duringÃ the reign of King Charles I (1600-1649), Cromwell fought against the king during the English Civil War, taking over as Lord Protector after Charles was beheaded for high treason. Cromwell died at age 59 in 1658 from an infection in his urinary tract or kidneys. Following an autopsy, his body was then buried - temporarily - in Westminster Abbey. In 1660, King Charles II - who had been exiled by Cromwell and his cronies - ordered CromwellÃ¢â¬â¢s head placed on a spike in Westminster Hall as a warning to potential usurpers. The rest of Cromwell was hanged and re-buried in an unmarked grave. After 20 years on the spike, CromwellÃ¢â¬â¢s head circulated around small London area museums until 1814, when it was sold to a private collector named Henry Wilkinson. According to reports and rumors, Wilkerson often took the head to parties, using it as a historic - though rather grizzly - conversation-starter. The Puritan leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s party days finally ended for good in 1960, when his head was permanently buried in the chapel at Sidney Sussex College in Cambridge.
Posted by e at 9:56 PM